Please note that this documentation was lifted from the Federation of Fly Fishers web site and is to be used for instructional reference only. Original documents are noted at the end of the segments.

Ethics –

“Angling ethics begin with understanding and obeying laws and regulations associated with the fishery.
Fly anglers understand that their conduct relative to laws and regulations reflects on all anglers.
Angling ethics begin with and transcend laws and regulations governing angling and the resources that sustain the sport.”

“Fly fishers minimize their impact on the environment and fishery by adopting practices that do not degrade the quality of the banks, waters, and the overall watersheds upon which fisheries depend.
These practices include avoiding the introduction of species not native to an ecosystem, and cleaning and drying fishing gear to prevent the inadvertent transport of invasive exotics that may threaten the integrity of an aquatic ecosystem. In simplest terms, fly anglers always leave the fishery better than when they found it.

Fly anglers do not judge the methods of fellow anglers. Fly fishers share their knowledge of skills and techniques. They help others to understand that fly-fishing contributes to sound fisheries conservation practices.

Fly anglers treat fellow anglers as they would expect to be treated. They do not impose themselves on or otherwise interfere with other anglers. They wait a polite time, and then, if necessary, request permission to fish through. They may invite other anglers to fish through their positions. Fly fishers when entering an occupied run or area always move in behind other anglers, not in front of them whether in a boat or wading.

Fly anglers when sharing the water allow fellow anglers ample room so as not to disturb anyone’s fishing experience. They always fish in a manner that causes as little disturbance as practical to the water and fish. They take precautions to keep their shadow from falling across the water (walking a high bank).

When fishing from watercraft fly anglers do not crowd other anglers or craft. They do not block entrances to bays or otherwise impede others. Fly anglers do not unnecessarily disturb the water by improperly lowering anchors or slapping the water with paddles or oars.

Fly anglers always compliment other anglers and promote this Code of Angling Ethics to them whether they fish with a fly or not.

The following is a shortened version suitable to be carried by the angler:
· Fly anglers understand and obey laws and regulations associated with the fishery.
· Fly anglers believe fly fishing is a privilege and a responsibility.
· Fly anglers conserve fisheries by limiting their catch.
· Fly anglers do not judge fellow anglers and treat them as they would expect to be treated.
· Fly anglers respect the waters occupied by other anglers so that fish are not disturbed
· When fishing from a watercraft, fly anglers do not crowd other anglers or craft or unnecessarily disturb the water.
· Fly anglers respect other angling methods and promote this Code of Angling Ethics to all anglers.

Federation of Fly Fishers Code of Angling Ethics-2002.

Style –
Experienced fly fishers differ from one another in how they cast. They stand, hold the rod, and move their bodies in different ways, yet differ most noticeably in how they move their casting arm.

The elbow is a simple hinge that can only open (extend) or close
(flex). The shoulder, however, is a ball-and-socket joint that allows the arm to apply force in a variety of ways. This is where most arm variation occurs.

Elbow Forward
I start a beginning class with what I call the “elbow-forward” style. At the start of the forward
cast, your elbow is directly below your hand, which is at ear level and
slightly forward of your casting shoulder (Figure 1).
It is part of an overhand baseball throw, which is called a “kinetic whip” because each body part moves in a whip-like sequence, adding to the overall force.
This upright forearm is also important to accuracy by leading and thus controlling the vertical forward movement of. your fly rod and unrolling. fly line.

Elbow Up to the Side
In the “elbow-up-to-the-side” style, the forward cast starts with your elbow positioned directly out to your side at about shoulder level with your casting hand directly above your elbow (Figure 2). In its simplest form, the upper arm acts like a rotisserie, rotating without going anywhere. Thus, on your back cast, your forearm and rod are rotated up and backward around a stationary elbow and then rotated ahead of your elbow on your forward cast.

However, this movement relies more on your shoulder, which is exerting force in a strong throwing motion.

Low Elbow
In the “low-elbow” style, your elbow is kept low, down close to your body, and moved back and forth mostly from the shoulder. Even so, your hand comes up somewhat on’ the back cast to lift the line and downward on the forward cast enough to keep it from hitting your rod tip (Figure 3). When going for distance, most low elbow casters open up their stance by dropping the
casting side back.

Arm Styles – Al Kyte

Methods –

1. The instructor demonstrates the skill and explains how to do it.
2. The instructor demonstrates the skill while the student explains how to do it.
3. The student demonstrates the skill while the instructor explains how to do it.
4. The student demonstrates the skill and explains how to do it.

Objectives –
· Apply learning principles,
· Practice the qualities of highly competent instructors,
· Avoid the pitfalls that lead to instructor failure,
· Assess and improve your abilities continuously

Goals –

MOTIVATION. If students are not receptive to incoming information it will be lost. By
expressing why the information is important, students will want to learn. For example, you may want to state: “By using as few false casts as possible, your line will be on the water longer giving you more opportunity to catch fish.”
DIGESTIBLE CHUNKS. The amount of information given during a period of time is important.
Present information one step at a time and stop often and check students’ grasp of the
knowledge and skill. Students will have plenty of time to store the information, one CHUNK at a time.
EXPERIENCE. Learning by doing is the way experience is gained, so give lots of guided
practice. Also, learning is enhanced by relating a new experience (what they are to learn) to past experience (what they already have learned). For example, many students may have cast a spinning or bait casting rod. You can assist their learning by relating how fly casting is different because it uses the weight of the line to cast instead of the a weight at the end of the line. skills draw the student into the learning.

They include:
1. Presenting yourself in a manner that shows you are paying attention to the students (facing students, maintaining eye contact, moving close to students, and avoiding, distracting behavior such as jingling change in your pocket.

2. Observing what is going on in the class to determine how to apply other learning
principles to the situation. Look at the students’ faces, body position and movement. Look for enthusiasm, boredom or confusion. Form an opinion of their feelings based on what you observed. Take appropriate action such as: Encourage enthusiasm, involve bored students, and relieve student’s confusion.

3. Listening to understand the needs thoughts and concerns of students and sending the
message that their input is important. Listen to the content and the meaning of the words.

Paraphrase what was said to demonstrate you received and understood the message.

QUESTIONING. By asking questions of students, we can determine student learning level, reinforce desirable behavior, improve interest, check effectiveness of the instruction, and reveal student attitudes. An effective question has a specific purpose, is easily understood, and emphasizes one point.

To ask a question, do the following:
1. Alert the students by saying: “I have a question.” or “Here is a question for you.”
2. Ask the question and pause at least three seconds for a response. (Gives the student time to think.)
3. Call on one person to answer and pause for three more seconds.
4. Reinforce the response by repeating it and clarifying all that you want the students to know. (If it is incorrect, reinforce the effort by saying “that’s close but what I’m really asking is …” then repeat the question. Ask if anyone else can help get the answer.)

RETRIEVAL. Once knowledge and skill is retained, it must be retrieved in order to be used.
During practice, you may ask a student to demonstrate a skill on demand. “Show me the roll cast.”
Or, after explaining the steps in making the pick-up, you may use a cue such as: “The first step in making the pick-up is to slowly raise the rod tip. What is the next step?”
This will help the student to retrieve the information.

TRANSFER. Most fly casting instruction is held away from the stream or lake, usually a park or casting pond. The instruction is not useful unless the student can transfer what was learned to the stream. This may be the hardest part of the instruction. One way to accomplish this is to gather the students at the end of the session and discuss how to apply what they have learned to the stream or lake and demonstrate some techniques. Another way is to show a casting instruction video that takes place on the water. This allows the student to see the techniques applied to the real situation.

BARRIERS TO LEARNING. There are many factors that have a negative impact on learning. Some of these factors you may encounter are as follows:
· Physical condition and health barriers. Sensory impairment such as poor vision, stress, physical limitations, and poor health can restrict information processing.(Its hard to learn to fly cast if your casting arm hurts!). When a student has one of these conditions, you must accommodate it by slowing down, giving them more time, and giving them lots of positive reinforcement.
· Emotional barriers. People’s ability to learn is dependent on the degree of “safety” they feel in the learning situation. Fear of failure or embarrassment is high among adult learners. The instructor must create a learning environment “safe” from ridicule and give people plenty of reinforcement, even for the smallest of gains in ability.
· Intellectual barriers. Previous learning can be an asset or a liability. An asset is when new learning can be applied to past experience. A liability is when the incorrect learning took place and now you have to teach the correct way. Many people will have difficulty unlearning bad casting habits, so you must be patient, reinforcing, and persistent with them.
SUMMARY. We defined learning as an experience that is retained by the learner and results in a measurable change in knowledge, skill, and attitude. The learning principles include:
· digestible chunks
· experience
· attention
· reinforcement
· retention
· retrieval
· transfer
· and barriers to learning.
Theory –
ENTHUSIASM FOR PRODUCING LEARNING. Enthusiasm is having a real enjoyment of what you do and displaying a positive attitude about the fun of fly fishing. The eagerness and interest you have in fly casting makes it easier and more enjoyable for students to learn. Show your enthusiasm!

FLY CASTING EXPERTISE. All instructors must have an excellent command of their subject. Instructors must know what the students must learn. Students must look at the instructor as the expert.
It is up to the instructor to structure the learning and present it in a way that involves all the students.
The use of assistant instructors helps to make sure all of the students are under guided practice throughout the course.
MEETING THE NEEDS OF THE STUDENTS. Students expect to benefit from the learning. If they do not learn the skills required to cast (and catch fish) then the time and money spent are wasted.
PROFESSIONAL APPEARANCE. You should be clean and dress just a little better than your students. In fly casting instruction, this means no dirty, torn, or tattered clothing and the use of good equipment.
APPLICATION OF THE LEARNING PROCESS. The key to success is the application
of the four steps to training, the learning principles, the qualities of competent
instructors, avoiding instructor pitfalls, and self-assessment and improvement.
ABILITY TO COMMUNICATE AND RELATE TO OTHERS. Your success is rooted in your ability to get ideas across to others and to understand what others are saying to you. In addition, you must be able to get along with others. In order to relate to
others you must be poised, genuine, honest, flexible, patient, trustworthy, and
forgiving. If students perceive you this way, they will try harder and learn more.

COUNSELOR, ADVISOR, EVALUATOR. Students need your instruction and support, and your feedback on their performance. They want to know what progress they have made (a chance for you to give them positive reinforcement) and what they need to work on. Set high standards for achievement, but be reasonable as to how students get there.

LEADERSHIP. Leadership is the ability to influence others to achieve positive goals. A leader is liked by the followers. This is called charisma. You can improve your own personal charisma by smiling a lot, taking pride in the excellence of your work, being a roll model not a critic, strive for self improvement, do more than is expected of you, be open to better ways of doing things, never convey the attitude “it is not my job,” do not give up when the pressure gets tough, and look for ways to add quality to your work.

ORGANIZATION. People will accept the ideas of an organized person much faster than a disorganized one. Students respect an instructor that is organized and prepared. One way to do this, is to use a lesson plan to guide you while instructing fly casting. Included in this packet is Fly Casting, A Guide to Teaching Fundamental Casting for Beginners. It is an excellent lesson plan for beginners and a model for developing your own lesson plans.

NOT EXPLAINING THE WHYS. People learn better if they know why they are learning something (why it is important).

UNORGANIZED APPROACH. Learning that is not well organized is not going to be effective. It will not make sense to the learner.

ASSUMPTIONS WITHOUT FOUNDATION. If you do not know an answer, do not assume, bluff, or make statements that are not based in fact.

FAILING TO PREPARE THOROUGHLY. Students will know immediately if, you are not prepared to teach. They will tune out what you say.
NOT SETTING HIGH ENOUGH STANDARDS. People strive to achieve goals that are a
challenge. Set attainable but challenging standards.
NOT ADHERING TO STANDARDS. Once set, lowering a standard makes all other standards lose their credibility.
LACK OF TIME AND PATIENCE. Take the time and effort necessary to be sure students have learned properly. All students are not at the same level and some require large amounts of patience.
LACK OF FOLLOW THROUGH. You need to check the learning level of students. Follow through is essential to determine if instruction was received and understood
Show concern for a student needs and they will respond with attention, interest, and involvement.

developed by: Jim Watkins
reviewed by: Larry Hampy,Mel Krieger, Judy Lehmberg,
Allan Rohrer, Barbara Rohrer
October 1992
Revisions: July 1999


Casting with Joan Wulff.